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The Superior Operational Management Layer is the central methodological approach in EMILI towards the needed new generation of infrastructure control systems. Today’s SCADA systems are highly sophisticated data management and control systems. They collect data, store them, and process them in a pre-defined way. SOMAL will provide the needed additional functionality and flexibility for emergency management.

The new generation of infrastructure control systems will be significantly different from today’s systems. They will be more flexible, able to work with heterogeneous data, have situational awareness, support distributed and collaborative problem solving, and need active and reactive data processing capabilities.
The SOMAL layer has to support the different functionalities of emergency management in large infrastructures as

  • processing and collecting information,
  • reporting about automatic reactions,
  • real-time assessment of the safety and security conditions,
  • alarm interpation module
  • decision support concerning non automatic actions,
  • event and activity log. 

SOMAL will provide the information backbone for emergency management in large infrastructures. Many different kinds of information have to be managed and processed in a coherent and transparent way.

SOMAL will be built on dedicated expressive semantic Web information models (ontologies) for emergency management in large infrastructures including

  • a complex event ontology,
  • decision support and collaboration ontology including decision reationale
  • a risk and impact ontology, and
  • ontologies for temporal, spatial, causal, structural and behavioural aspects of large infrastructures


The Simulation and Training Environment will provide modeling and simulation capabilities. It will supply the necessary processing power for SOMAL by collecting information, reporting about automatic reactions, real-time assessment of the safety and security conditions, alarm interpretation, decision support and event and activity log.

SITE will support the user to manage the complex dynamic information by advanced user interfaces with integrated and coordinated multiple views best suited for complex information processing and for human decision support.

Via SITE operators will be able to

  • simulate complex scenarios, to validate the used approaches and to train their solving capability.
  • get decision support in exceptional and emergency situations.

New Web Technologies

Semantic Web

Data which has to be processed automatically needs to be in the right shape and context. Different information systems expect data with different meaning. Semantic Web technologies enable unambiguous information exchange between different stakeholders. By defining a formal semantics information exchange may be even accomplished between different domains.

Complex Event Processing (CEP)

Currently used Web services support pre-defined processing of relatively simple events. Crisis and emergency management inevitably needs the capability to deal with complex events and actions. The logical relationships between events, the constraints between them and the related actions of various stakeholders have to be managed carefully. The upcoming Web technologies for Complex Event Processing will provide the needed capabilities.

Event Condition Action (ECA) Rules

current Web technologies are focused on information retrieval: a user searches for certain information on the Web, or extracts information from the Web by browsing. Crisis and emergency management is essentially based on active information management by systems and on reactive information processing: control systems have actively to push information to other related stakeholders, they have actively to coordinate their response plans with each other, and they have to adapt their actions to changing situations. A key issue in this context is to focus active information management on the needs of the various stakeholders and their capabilities: present the right information to the right stakeholders at the right time, and avoid unnecessary information avalanches. Active Web services provide these features. They are based on Event Condition Action rules (ECA) as active Web elements. They are an essential element of future crisis and emergency management approaches. ECA rules can be executed automatically or semi-automatically - because legal or operational reasons often make a semi-automatic execution necessary, e.g. emergency plans can require choices, confirmations, or manual action from human operators.