Use Case I: Monitoring and Control of Airport Facilities

The first use case will apply the technological outcomes of EMILI to a control system developed by PUPIN for the integrated control of technical airport systems at the Nikola Tesla Airport, Belgrade. 

Today, airports face unprecedented challenges, ranging from high passenger load over common vandalism to terrorism, which demand a new approach to supervise and control their infrastructure. At the same time enhanced availability, safety and reliability must not increase significantly the cost of operation. Thus, an integrated solution that offers a holistic view of all relevant airport subsystems is required. The heart and the brain of such an integrated solution (represented by the central bubble of Figure 2) is a powerful, fault-tolerant, system on which a supervision and control system is installed, tying together a whole bunch of subsystems and controllers. Detection of (interrelated) events and prompt automated reaction to them could be implemented as part of this solution by using future technology made available through EMILI.

With the active Web technology used within the project we can add value to the current solutions for monitoring and control of airport facilities via expanded, smart control capabilities, self-diagnostic capabilities for an easier repair and maintenance, easier implementation of causal relationships between subsystems and, consequently, (semi-)automated procedures.

Use Case II: Generic Monitoring and Control for Public Critical Infrastructures

The second use case will cover the concrete requirements from clients of the industrial partners SKYTEC AG and ASIT AG. It will be built around event-driven monitoring and control of public Critical Infrastructures in normal and emergency situations.

Our two industrial partners have successfully been employing control systems for this application domain and have recognised the trend towards more and more sophisticated control systems having the ability to monitor and control the behaviour of many geographically distributed, heterogeneous devices. Additionally, the management of dependencies to other stakeholders of different kind becomes of growing importance – under normal and especially under emergency conditions.

A proper control of facilities such as a train stations implies analyzing a huge amount of dynamic sensory and situational information (e.g. temperature information, passenger volume) using complex knowledge about the facility (e.g. evacuation routes), individual devices (e.g. types), and work-flows (e.g. evacuation plans). This complexity will be conquered by employing complex event processing (CEP) and active Web techniques. Complex event processing in control systems primarily addresses the need to derive higher-level, symbolic events (e.g. train enters the station) from lower-level, numeric sensory input. Higher-level symbolic events are in particular important for programming automatic and semiautomatic reactions, which are important for adequate human operator decision support and which can be specified in an elegant, flexible, and transparent manner by means of these technologies.

With the aid of this use cases EMILI will demonstrate the role of complex event processing for customising generic control systems, since they are more flexible and easier to develop and maintain than procedural code.

Use Case III: Monitoring and Control of Next Generation Power Networks and their dependencies to other Critical Infrastructures

Power networks are currently experiencing a number of changes that are going to affect control and monitoring in a fundamental way. The power grid has always been a complex infrastructure needing centralized control, in order to coordinate the balance between generation and load (which is a real-time task with quite short timescale response times) and also ensure a secure level of redundancy in the network at all times. Thanks to the advances in telecommunication technologies of the past 25 years, this basic task of control and monitoring is achieving ever higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness. We are referring to the current crop of wide-area SCADA systems, which are deployed in the infrastructure providers of most developed countries. However, the new changes faced by

  • increased load
  • distributed generation (mostly from renewable sources),
  • market de-regulation, and
  • demand-side management

will take us into a new era in which the current paradigms of control of power grids will be challenged.
This is especially true under emergency conditions which might happen within a power grid itself, in neighbour grids, power plants, etc., in its ICT systems, or in other related infrastructures with consequences for the power grid.
All of these changes point to a new scenario where monitoring and control will be facing a dramatic increase in the amount of information received.

Intelligent interpretation of alarm avalanches, together with the adequate user interfaces, is a perfect use-case for the results of the research planned in EMILI. The problem shares many things in common with the other use cases, in that we have a stream of low-level events which has to be processed quickly in order to detect emerging “complex events”. This has to be done reliably, that is, the number of false positives has to be low. At the same time, this system has to be sensitive, i.e. the number of false negatives also has to be low (no undetected cases). And this task has to be done with little help from the electrical model equations, since there is not enough time to compute things. Thus there is a strong case for the use of the generic techniques to be developed in EMILI.